Camels live in incredibly dry environments with extreme temperatures. This means that in order to survive these harsh conditions, the camel has to have adapted to its environment in a very special way.
The two humps on their backs are probably their most notable adaptation to the desert. These humps have fat stored in them, which sustains them without food (several months) or water (for a week or more).
They also have very long legs, and this has evolved to help them carry heavy loads over long distances, while keeping their body away from the heat generated from the hot sand.
They protect themselves against the harsh sunlight and sand blown about by strong winds through two rows of eyelashes.
Their hooves have flat, broad leathery pads that preventing him from sinking into the sand when he walks. They fan out when he places his foot on the ground, creating a “snowshoe effect”.
Its knees also have thick leathery like patches that shield him from burning himself when he kneels in the sand when tired.
They also have the ability of closing their nostrils, which guard him against inhaling blowing sand.
Despite the hot desert temperatures, camels have thick coats. This serves two very important functions. During the day, it insulates them against the scorching desert heat. At night, it keeps them warm as temperatures drop low.
Camels can drink up to about 46 gallons of water at once. Their body temperature is also known to be unstable, and this allows them to conserve the water by not sweating it out.
They also have very thick lips. This helps them eat the thorny desert plants without feeling the pain of the pricks.
Their tawny color is a perfect camouflage to the desert landscape.
Their ears, like the rest of their bodies are very furry, both outside and in. This feature protects them against dust and sand that might be blown, similar to the function performed by their eyelashes and nostrils.