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Rocks and Minerals
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Structure of earth
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Simple Machines
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Animal Adaptations
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Plant Adaptations
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Solar System

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Felt is a type of fabric that is produced by pressing woollen thread together. Unlike other types of fabrics, felt is not woven.

Felt is composed of wool and mixed with synthetic materials to create a strong fabric that is used for many crafts and industrial purposes.

Some types of felt however, do not have a wool component, and are instead made of fully synthetic material.

Felt is considered among the oldest fabrics known to man, and since it did not need a textile loom to produce it, it was made rather easily.

Some of the earliest felt recovered from ancient sites date back to about 700 B.C. where the felt was used to make clothing, saddles, and tents.

Since it is a very strong material, it protected against rain and snow, making it excellent material for tents and shelter.

An ancient Roman legend says that during the Middle Ages, St. Clement, a wandering monk, accidentally stumbled on how to make felt.

Later, when he was appointed bishop, he organized groups of workers to develop the felting operation, and was considered the patron saint of hat makers.

Over the next centuries, felt production was mastered and little in that regard has changed over time.

Even today, felted fabric is produced through extreme heat, moisture, and pressure so that all the fibres can be connected and matted together.

Over the last century, felt use became increasingly popular and many craftsman began using felt for various garments, and accessories, both in small-scale and industrial settings.

Felt contains mainly wool which grips easily, and is mixed with a strong synthetic fibre to add strength and resilience to the product.

Typical fabric combinations for making felt are wool and nylon, and wool and polyester.

To the mixture of wool and the synthetic fabric, a weak solution of sulphuric acid is mixed, along with soda ash to help with the steaming and matting process.

Today, felt is used to make clothes, hats, rugs, tents, insulation (making warm), sound proofing, and even upholstering (cushioning).

It is also used for military products like helmets, boots, small ammunitions, and rockets.

Even though felt is treated as a fabric, its nature makes it very different to traditional clothes.

Normal clothes like cotton for example are woven in a criss-cross way, with one threat going over the other, like a basket weave.

As mentioned earlier, the process of making felt leaves it a messy jumble of threads, with no clear pattern. When it gets flossy with dust felt is combed out using a carding comb.

During felt production, some waste is generated. During the end, stages of trimming, small pieces get cut off which often mix with oil and grease and become unusable.

These materials end up in landfills, and since felt is not a 100% natural fibre, it takes time to decompose.

Because there are many uses for it, the demand for felt material and felt products is stable.