Brooms are a type of evergreen and semi evergreen shrubs found in the chaparral regions of the Mediterranean, Europe, Africa, and Southwest Asia. Most of the broom species are fire-climax species, meaning that they are well adapted to regular fires.
These plants are hardy, and even when the plant above the surface of the soil is burned, it re-grows from the roots while arranging the stored seeds within the soil to germinate.
The broom species have many different kinds; the common broom is the most widespread of them. The largest species of broom is the Mount Etna broom, and among the smallest is the dyer’s broom.
The common broom as bright yellow flowers that overpowers the plant in spring and summer. The plant has leafless stems, which is where these flowers bloom during the season.
The seed pods which are thick and about 2 to 3 cm long crack open usually making a small ‘pop’ sound, which throws the seeds in all directions, allowing them to then germinate.
The common broom is one of the hardiest of the broom species (possibly, why it is so common) and can tolerate a range of temperatures, from hot to about -25 0C.
Important to their survival is a symbiotic relationship they have with a type of bacteria (Rhizobium), through which the plant is able to fix nitrogen in the soil.
Its many leaves make the process of photosynthesis relatively easy, but functions at its optimum in the proper temperatures and sunlight. Some other types of broom species like the Spanish and Scotch brooms rely on the stems for photosynthesis, not so much of the leaves.