Eucalyptus trees are mostly found in Australian savannas. This tree has gone through many evolutionary changes that allow it to thrive in its environment.
Eucalyptus trees are sometimes called gum trees, and this is mainly because of gum like sticky substance they have on their trunks. This acts as water and nutrient transporter throughout the body, passing such substances through a special type of tissue it produces.
It also protects itself by powerfully toxic oil it produces in its leaves. This oil acts as a great disinfectant, but is volatile because it evaporates when exposed to the air at normal temperatures. Some animals like possums and koalas however are quite used to this oil and continue to use the plant as a food source.
The tree also has seedpods, which are hard, woody pods that serve as unique identifiers of any particular type of eucalyptus species. Inside these, there are a few actual seeds but infertile chaff.
Australia is famous for bushfires, and trees that grow in such environments will only survive if they can recover from such intense damage. The eucalyptus tree is a master at it. It is able to regenerate from seeds and even shoots thereby increasing its chances of survival.
The plant also produces a special cap called the operculum, which protects the petals, and stamen before the flower fully opens. When the flower is opening, this operculum is gradually shed.
These unique adaptations allow the eucalyptus trees to survive the harsh savannah environments.